The concepts of class 12 Biology from the CBSE syllabus can be easily understood from NCERT Solutions for class 12. Furthermore, Biology NCERT Solutions class 12 is provided by experienced faculty members and academic professionals. Therefore, students gain more from them than other similar websites. The students can comprehend the concepts with ease.

The topics covered in the class 12 syllabus are very important for the competitive examinations also. Hence, the solutions are compiled in such a manner that students can grasp and recall the important topics with ease.

NCERT Solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter-wise

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

In this chapter, how various organisms are able to procreate is explained. Reproduction is an important biological process in which an organism gives birth to young ones similar to itself. There are two types of reproduction- asexual and sexual. Asexual is when an offspring is produced by a single parent with or without the involvement of gamete formation. Sexual reproduction is when two parents of opposite sex participate in the reproductive process and involves the fusion of male and female gametes.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is about the morphology, structure, and processes of sexual reproduction in angiosperms. It also explains subtopics such as pre-fertilization: structure and events, double fertilization, post-fertilization: structure and events, apomixis, and polyembryony.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

The reproductive process in humans involves the formation of gametes (gametogenesis), i.e., sperms in males and ovum in females. Humans reach sexual maturity after attaining a certain age and this stage is called puberty. In this chapter, the male and female reproductive systems in humans are explained.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

This chapter explains the healthy reproductive organs with normal functions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term reproductive health means total well-being in all the aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioral, and social.

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Genetics is that branch of Biology which tells about inheritance, as well as the variation of characters from parents to offspring. Inheritance is the process where the characters are passed from parent to progeny and is the basis of heredity. The chapter also includes subtopics such as Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, Inheritance of One Gene, Inheritance of two Genes, Sex Determination, Mutation, Genetic Disorders.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

In this chapter, we learn that the nature of the putative genetic material was investigated culminating in the realization that DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid- is the genetic material, at least for the majority of organisms, and that nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides.

Chapter 7: Evolution

Evolution is about the study of the history of life forms on earth. The subtopics covered are Origins of Life, Evolution of Life Forms, A Brief Account of Evolution, Origin, and evolution of Man related to evolution.

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Health is primarily affected by the following-

  • Genetic disorders- deficiencies with which a child is born and deficiencies/defects which a child inherits from parents from birth
  • Infections
  • A lifestyle that includes food and water, rest and exercise, habits that we have or lack, etc.

The subtopics included in this chapter are common diseases in humans, immunity, AIDS, cancer, drugs and alcohol abuse

Chapter 9: Strategies for enhancement in food production

Due to the ever-increasing population of the world, the enhancement of food production has become a necessity. Biological principles, as applied to animal husbandry and plant breeding play a major role in our efforts to increase food production.

Chapter 10: Microbes in human welfare

There are various forms of microbes. They are protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and microscopic animal and plant viruses, viroid, and also prions that are proteinaceous infectious agents.

Chapter 11: Biotechnology principles and processes

Biotechnology is the process that deals with the technique of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans.

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its application

The applications of biotechnology are therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food bioremediation, waste treatment, and energy production.

Chapter 13: Organisms and populations

In this chapter, ecology is explored at organismic and population levels.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

In this chapter, the structure of the ecosystem is observed, in order to appreciate the productivity, transfer of energy, and output.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity and conservations include topics like ecological diversity, genetic diversity, species diversity, loss of biodiversity, different types of species, patterns of diversity, etc.

Chapter 16: Environmental issues

The human population has increased tremendously over the last hundred years. This means there is an increase in demand for food, water, home, electricity, roads, automobiles, and other commodities. The topics covered in this chapter are Air Pollution and Its Control, Water Pollution and Its Control, Solid Wastes, Agrochemicals, and their effects.

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